Codeine Cough Syrup
CODEINE COUGH SYRUP CAN BE DEFINED AS A MILD NARCOTIC analgesic (painkiller) comparable to, but less powerful than morphine. Codeine is relatively more efficient than morphine immediately after being taken orally. It is used mainly to help remedy mild to average pain. It is also a powerful cough supressant and is available as an ingredient in numerous cough syrups as well as cold remedies. CODEINE COUGH SYRUP acts like a cough supressant by simply depressing the central pathways of a cough reflex inside the brain.
- Codeine and various other codeine-like drugs (narcotic drugs) could cause constipation through it’s action of inhibiting or scaling down gut movements.
- Through this actions, codeine is occasionally used a short-term measure to help remedy diarrheea.
- Codeine consumption is additionally habit-forming and therefore may cause dependence.
- However, when used for a brief period of time and on the recommended dose, addiction seldom takes place. Codeine can always be safely stopped once the relief of the signs and symptoms is achieved.
When taken with the recommended dose, its onset of action occurs within just thirty to sixty minutes and lasts for 4 to 6 hours. When the suggested dose is surpassed, signs and symptoms of overdosage will be seen. These include slower or irregular inhaling and exhaling (respiratory despression symptoms), severe drowsiness (main nervous system depressive disorders) or decrease of consciousness.
Codeine cough syrup might cause drug dependence while taken for prolonged periods and of course not at the suggested doses. In Malaysia, codeine-based cough syrup abuse is rampant amongs teenagers and drug or medication addicts who take it as an alternative to dadah.
- There is a growing trend in making use of cough syrups as being a substance of abuse.
- It was reported inside a local newspaper that cough syrups having a codeine content of about 9 mg for every 5 ml of syrup is specially sought after.
- This syrup is drunk from the bottle and a minumum of one 60 ml up to 100 ml bottle a day is required to give hallucinatory sensations.
These are mostly utilized by drug addicts who cannot get their normal fix. It is well known to the public that there are a variety of ways in which codeine-containing cough syrup is usually consumed or over used. In some circumstances, drug addicts are reported to have often taken it like a spiked soft beverage. The drink will be then shared among them. It is even considered to be popular among college children.
There may have to be a nationwide drive to prevent the unregulated selling of cough blends with codeine. This is essential to prevent the problem from being a social menace. In addiction to giving a “high, ” the easy accessibility to cough mixtures might lead to addiction among children.
Codeine-based syrups could potentially cause both psychological dependence – the emotional craving to get a drug. There is a desire for the drug being present in the body so that the required effect can be acquired. If it is absent, it will lead to undesirable effects.
Physical dependence consists of physiological changes of the body. These include revulsion symptoms (serious physical disturbances) as well as development of tolerance towards the drug’s effects.
- Withdrawal symptoms occur once the drug hasn’t been taken over a prolonged stretch of time, for example, for more then eight hours.
- The withdrawal responses reach a high in about 48 hours after which gradually lessen, returning to regular in about one or two weeks.
- At any time during this period, the reactions might be terminated when this drug is consumed again or whenever antagonist (the drug that conteracts as well as prevents the actions of another substance or endogenous system chemical) of the drug is consumed.
Apprehension Restless behavior
Craving for medication Rhinorrhoea
Chilliness Rise in body’s temperature
Insomnia Agitated behavior
Feeling of weak point Sneezing
Headache Cold, clammy skin
Anorexia Refusal to consume food
Gastrointestinal discomfort Throwing up
Abdominal cramps Diarrhoea
Muscular aches & discomfort Tremor
Drug tolerance occurs when the body adapts towards actions of the drug. Individuals can develop tolerance to numerous drugs and this is extremely dangerous. Individuals who acquire tolerance need greater and larger doses to achieve the same original effects and as a consequence tend to raise the dosage. This will only boost the risk of harmful effects and dependancy.
It must always be remembered that regular usage of a particular drug doesn’t make a person drug-dependent. There are other factors that need to be taken into consideration. These include the characteristic of a drug itself (whether it’s got a low, medium or high dependence rating), the strength as well as frequency of dosages and duration of usage.
Allergic reactions (for example. skin rashes)
Under normal conditions, when a prescribed drug is taken as recommended by the doctor or pharmacologist, there is the lowest risk of acquiring drug dependence. Spiritual, mental, emotional and bodily factors also help with the avoidance as well as development of medication dependence. The potential of a drug dependence increases each time a drug is consumed for non-medical motives, as in the situation of codeine-based cough syrups.
Figures obtained from the Selangor State Pharmacy Enforvement Unit shows a spectacular increase in cough mixture seizures from the year 1994 till 1995, concurrent with the increase in unregulated product sales of cough remedies in the same time period.
In view of this, the Ministry of Health had made a decision to tighten some restrictions by banning the import and production of cough mix containing codeine in conjunction with ephedrine or psyedoephedrine in Malaysia since January 1 this coming year.
What the Legislation States
Most cough remedies that can be bought without prescription will be categorised as Group C poison within the Poison Act 1952. The sale of group C poisons has to be recorded in the prescription book. The details noted are:
The date on which the sale had been made
The name of that poison sold and its particular active ingredients
The name along with address of the one who bought the poison
The penalty intended for illegal sale can be a maximum fine of RM5, 000 or 2 years’ jail or even both.
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